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REDE GOIANA DE PESQUISA EM TUBERCULOSE

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Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina Tropical e Saúde Pública

  • Ana Paula e André

    Ana Paula e André

  • Chaos To Order

    Chaos To Order

  • RGPTB n o 11º Congresso Brasileiro de Saúde Coletiva/ABRASCÃO - 2015

    RGPTB n o 11º Congresso Brasileiro de Saúde Coletiva/ABRASCÃO - 2015

  • balmani

    Artigos 2017: Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from patients in intensive care units in Goiânia, Brazil: Molecular and drug susceptibility profiles.

    Abstract

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is increasing worldwide and imposes significant life-threatening risks to several different populations, especially those in intensive care units (ICUs). Bacteria can quickly develop or acquire resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and combined with their intrinsic potential to cause disease in humans, these bacteria can become deadly. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii is notorious as a frequent opportunistic pathogen associated with critically ill patients, and understanding the genetic basis of A. baumannii resistance to beta-lactams among patients in ICUs will result in better protocols to prevent the development of resistance as well as improved treatment regimens. In this study, we assessed 1333 patients in five ICUs, 56 of whom developed A. baumannii infections. Most of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobial drugs, specifically, 3rd- and 4th-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems, and 91.1% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant (MDR). The most frequent OXA gene present was OXA-23 (55.1%), which is significantly associated with MDR strains. Most of the A. baumannii isolates (76.8%) were capable of forming a biofilm. The antimicrobial drug classes that were effective against most of these isolates were polymyxins and tigecycline. The molecular profile of the isolates allowed detection of 12 different clusters comprising 2 to 8 isolates each. In conclusion, our data indicate a high incidence of resistance to carbapenems as well as MDR strains among the observed A. baumannii isolates, most of which exhibited a high prevalence of OXA-23 gene expression. Only a few selective drugs were effective, reinforcing the notion that bacterial resistance is an emerging problem that should be prioritized in every healthcare facility.

     

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176790

  • m0 modulation

    Artigos 2017: Modulation of Macrophage Responses by CMX, a Fusion Protein Composed of Ag85c, MPT51, and HspX from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Abstract

    Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine used to prevent tuberculosis (TB). Due to the poor protection conferred by BCG in adults, new, more effective formulations have been developed. A recombinant BCG vaccine expressing the CMX fusion protein Ag85c_MPT51_HspX (rBCG-CMX) induced Th1 and Th17 responses and provided better protection than BCG. It has been shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing CMX also induces better protection than BCG and is a strong macrophage activator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macrophage activation by the recombinant CMX fusion protein and by rBCG-CMX and to evaluate their ability to generate vaccine-specific immune responses. The results demonstrate that rCMX protein expressed by BCG (rBCG-CMX) activates pulmonary macrophages; increases the expression of activation molecules, cytokines, and MHC-II. The interaction with rCMX activates the transcription factor NF-κB and induces the production of the cytokines TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-6. The in vitro stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) from TLR-4 or TLR-2 KO mice showed that in the absence of TLR-4, IL-6 was not produced. rBCG-CMX was unable to induce CMX-specific Th1 and Th17 cells in TLR-4 and TLR-2 KO mice, suggesting that these receptors participate in their induction. We concluded that both the rBCG-CMX vaccine and the rCMX protein can activate macrophages and favor the specific immune response necessary for this vaccine.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5389097/

  • nano

    Artigos 2017: Role of Metallic Nanoparticles in Vaccinology: Implications for Infectious Disease Vaccine Development.

    Abstract

    Subunit vaccines are safer but less immunogenic than live-attenuated vaccines or whole cell inactivated vaccines. Adjuvants are used to enhance and modulate antigen (Ag) immunogenicity, aiming to induce a protective and long-lasting immune response. Several molecules and formulations have been studied for their adjuvanticity, but only seven have been approved to formulate human vaccines. Metallic nanoparticles (MeNPs), particularly those containing gold and iron oxides, are widely used in medicine for diagnosis and therapy and have been used as carriers for drugs and vaccines. However, little is known about the immune response elicited by MeNPs or about their importance in the development of new vaccines. There is evidence that these particles display adjuvant characteristics, promoting cell recruitment, antigen-presenting cell activation, cytokine production, and inducing a humoral immune response. This review focuses on the characteristics of MeNPs that could facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response, particularly T-helper 1 and T-helper 17, and their potential functions as adjuvants for subunit vaccines.

     

    http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00239/full

  • massilience

    Artigos 2017: Non-disulfide-Bridge Peptide 5.5 from the Scorpion Hadrurus gertschi Inhibits the Growth of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense.

    Abstract

    Multi-drug resistant microorganisms have been a growing concern during the last decades due to their contribution in mortality rates worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that display potent microbicidal activity against a wide range of microorganisms. AMPs generally have a rapid mode of action that reduces the risk of resistance developing among pathogens. In this study, an AMP derived from scorpion venom, NDBP-5.5, was evaluated against Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense, a rapidly growing and emerging pathogen associated with healthcare infections. The minimal bactericidal concentration of NDBP-5.5, AMP quantity necessary to stop bacteria visible growth, against M. abscessus subsp. massiliense was 200 μM, a concentration that did not induce hemolysis of human red blood cells. The therapeutic index was 3.05 indicating a drug with low toxicity and therefore good clinical potential. Treatment of infected macrophages with NDBP-5.5 or clarithromycin presented similar results, reducing the bacterial load. M. abscessus subsp. massiliense-infected animals showed a decrease in the bacterial load of up to 70% when treated with NDBP-5.5. These results revealed the effective microbicidal activity of NDBP-5.5 against Mycobacterium, indicating its potential as an antimycobacterial agent.

    http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00273/full

  • Artigo 2017: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the mastoparan Polybia-MPII isolated from venom of the social wasp Pseudopolybia vespiceps testacea (Vespidae, Hymenoptera).

    Abstract

    Mastoparans, a class of peptides found in wasp venom, have significant effects following a sting as well as useful applications in clinical practice. Among these is their potential use in the control of micro-organisms that cause infectious diseases with a significant impact on society. Thus, the present study describes the isolation and identification of a mastoparan peptide from the venom of the social wasp Pseudopolybia vespiceps and evaluated its antimicrobial profile against bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. massiliense), fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans) and in vivo S. aureus infection. The membrane pore-forming ability was also assessed. The mastoparan reduced in vitro and ex vivo mycobacterial growth by 80% at 12.5 µM in infected peritoneal macrophages but did not affect the shape of bacterial cells at the dose tested (6.25 µM). The peptide also showed potent action against S. aureus in vitro (EC50 and EC90 values of 1.83 µM and 2.90 µM, respectively) and reduced the in vivo bacterial load after 6 days of topical treatment (5 mg/kg). Antifungal activity was significant, with EC50 and EC90values of 12.9 µM and 15.3 µM, respectively, for C. albicans, and 11 µM and 22.70 µM, respectively, for C. neoformans. Peptides are currently attracting interest for their potential in the design of antimicrobial drugs, particularly due to the difficulty of micro-organisms in developing resistance to them. In this respect, Polybia-MPII proved to be highly effective, with a lower haemolysis rate compared with peptides of the same family.

     

    https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0924-8579(17)30006-7